Glossary of Tech Troubleshooting

In a world dominated by technology, comprehending the inner workings of our electronic devices can seem like a daunting challenge, especially for those without technical expertise.

To simplify this intricate landscape, we’ve curated a comprehensive guide encompassing an array of troubleshooting techniques and technical jargon essential for resolving tech-related issues.

Whether it’s demystifying complex terms or unraveling troubleshooting methods, this guide aims to empower everyone to navigate the world of technology with confidence and ease.




Essential software is designed to detect, prevent, and eradicate malicious software, ensuring device security by shielding against potential cyber threats and unauthorized access to sensitive data.


A repository for storing and preserving digital data over extended periods, employing systematic organization and management for easy retrieval and long-term accessibility.

Audio Driver:

Software acts as an intermediary between a computer’s hardware and the operating system, facilitating the translation of digital signals into audible sound through speakers or headphones.


The process of confirming the identity of a user or system, typically through credentials or biometric data, to grant access to specific information or resources while safeguarding against unauthorized entry.


A set of well-defined instructions or rules designed to solve a problem or perform specific tasks, widely used in computing for data processing, calculations, and problem-solving.

API (Application Programming Interface):

A set of protocols, tools, and definitions that enable different software applications to communicate and interact, facilitating seamless integration between various systems.


Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or system. This involves verifying credentials and determining whether or not a user has permission to access certain information or resources.

Without proper authentication measures in place, data can be exposed to potential threats such as hackers, phishing attempts, and cyber attacks.



Creating duplicate copies of critical files or data to mitigate the risk of loss, damage, or corruption, ensuring redundancy and availability of information in case of unforeseen events.


The rate of data transfer within a network connection, influencing the speed and capacity for transmitting information, crucial for ensuring efficient data communication.

Battery Bank:

An arrangement of batteries connected together to provide electrical power, often utilized as a backup power source during emergencies or in off-grid settings.

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System):

Firmware that initializes and configures hardware components during a device’s startup, facilitating communication between the operating system and hardware.


A wireless technology standard enables short-range communication between devices, commonly used for transferring data and connecting peripherals like keyboards and headphones.


An error, flaw, or glitch in software or hardware that causes unexpected behavior or malfunctions in system operations, often requiring debugging or correction.



A high-speed storage mechanism that temporarily stores frequently accessed or recently used data, enhancing system performance by reducing data retrieval time.


The ability of different devices, software, or systems to work together without encountering conflicts or operational issues, ensuring seamless integration and functionality.


Small text files stored by websites on user devices to retain preferences and settings, aiding in personalized browsing experiences and streamlined interactions with websites.

CPU (Central Processing Unit):

The primary component of a device is responsible for executing instructions and managing tasks, serving as the brain of the computer or electronic device.


Digital or virtual currencies secured by cryptography, are used for secure and decentralized financial transactions over blockchain networks.


The practice of protecting systems, networks, and data from digital attacks, unauthorized access, and data breaches, encompassing various strategies and technologies for safeguarding against cyber threats.



The essential process of identifying and rectifying errors, bugs, or glitches within software systems. Debugging involves meticulous problem-solving to detect and resolve issues, ensuring smoother software functionality.

Depleted Mode Battery:

A specialized battery is designed to discharge rapidly, providing an instant surge of power when necessary, unlike standard batteries that release energy gradually.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol):

A protocol that automates the assignment of IP addresses to devices on a network, streamlining communication without requiring manual configuration. DHCP dynamically allocates IP addresses, minimizing conflicts and simplifying network management.

DNS (Domain Name System):

Vital technology linking human-readable domain names with their corresponding IP addresses, enabling computers to locate and connect to websites. DNS translation facilitates easier access to websites by converting user-friendly URLs into numerical IP addresses.


A crucial component facilitating communication between hardware or software components. Drivers act as translators, enabling devices to interact and function effectively.

Data Breach:

An incident involving unauthorized access, exposure, or theft of sensitive or confidential information, potentially compromising individuals’ or organizations’ data security.



Software that mimics another device or computer system, allows the execution of programs or apps intended for different systems on a user’s device.


The process of converting data into a coded form to protect it from unauthorized access, ensuring the confidentiality and security of sensitive information during transmission or storage.


Mistakes or malfunctions occur within technological systems, ranging from minor glitches to significant disruptions caused by various factors like user error or hardware/software malfunctions.

Ethernet Ports:

Connective ports enable devices to link to networks for efficient data transfer, crucial for activities like gaming, video streaming, and file sharing.

External Hard Drive:

A portable storage device is used for storing and transferring files outside the computer’s internal storage, providing additional backup and expanded storage capacity.

Email Client:

The software enables users to send, receive, and manage emails, providing functionalities like composing, organizing, and accessing emails through a user-friendly interface.


Factory Reset:

A procedure to restore a device to its original settings, erasing all user data, apps, and configurations, essentially returning the device to its initial state.


Security technology acts as a barrier between internal networks and external threats, monitoring and filtering network traffic to safeguard against unauthorized access and malicious activity.

Frame Rate:

The frequency at which individual frames or images are displayed per second in video or animation, influences the smoothness and quality of visual content.


Utilization of electromagnetic waves to transmit data wirelessly, powering various technologies such as radio, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth for seamless communication.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol):

A technology facilitating file transfer between computers over a network, allowing users to upload and download files efficiently.


Software embedded into hardware devices provides essential instructions for device functionality, including boot-up sequences and device control.



A device or software acts as an entry point between different networks, often serving as a firewall and facilitating secure connectivity between networks.

Graphic Resolution:

The density of pixels or dots within an image determines its clarity and sharpness. Higher resolutions offer more detailed and visually appealing images.


Establishing an electrical connection between a device and the earth to prevent electrical buildup, safeguarding against potential damage or hazards.

GPU (Graphics Processing Unit):

A critical component specialized in handling graphics-related tasks, alleviating the workload on the CPU for activities like gaming, rendering, and video editing.

GPS (Global Positioning System):

A satellite-based navigation system providing location and time information anywhere on Earth, widely used in devices for mapping and navigation.


Adding location data, such as GPS coordinates, to digital media like photos or videos, enables users to identify the geographical location where the media was created or captured.


Hard drive:

A physical storage device within a computer or laptop is responsible for storing and accessing data, files, and applications.


A unique name identifying a device on a network is essential for device recognition and communication within the network infrastructure.

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface):

An interface used for transmitting high-definition audio and video signals between devices, commonly used for connecting TVs, monitors, and other multimedia devices.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language):

The foundational coding language used to create web pages, providing structure and formatting to web content.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure):

A secure version of HTTP, encrypts data during transmission, ensuring secure communication between a user’s browser and a website.

Heat Sink:

A passive cooling device dissipates heat generated by electronic components, ensuring proper temperature regulation and preventing overheating.


Infotainment Centre Display:

An integrated system in vehicles that combines entertainment, navigation, and information features for the driver and passengers’ convenience and enjoyment.


Electromagnetic radiation beyond the visible spectrum, is utilized in various devices for wireless communication and thermal imaging.

ISP (Internet Service Provider):

A company providing access to the Internet and related services to individuals or organizations.

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6):

A protocol designed to succeed IPv4, providing a larger address space and supporting the growing number of devices connected to the internet.

Input Device:

Hardware allows users to enter data or commands into a computer or electronic system, including keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and more.


A point of interaction or communication between different components, devices, or systems, enabling their connection and interaction.



Javascript is a programming language used to create dynamic and interactive web pages. It’s an essential tool for web developers and it’s used by almost all modern websites.

By using Javascript, developers can create features like responsive menus, animations, and pop-up alerts. Without Javascript, websites would be static and boring.


Jumper tech is a revolutionary new system that is changing the way we think about electronics. At its core, it is a modular design that allows different pieces of hardware to be added or removed as needed.

This means that users can swap out components and upgrade their devices without having to buy a whole new product. Jumper tech is also incredibly versatile, with a wide variety of applications ranging from smartphones and laptops to gaming consoles and even household appliances.


JPEG tech, which stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, is a commonly used method for compressing digital images. This technology works by analyzing the colors in an image and simplifying them into a smaller number of color variations.

This reduces the file size and allows for faster upload and download times. However, the downside is that this compression can cause some loss of detail and quality in the image.



The kernel serves as the core of an operating system, acting as a mediator between hardware and software. It manages system resources, allocates memory, facilitates communication between hardware and applications, and ensures stable operation.

Essentially, without the kernel, a computer wouldn’t function correctly, as it orchestrates crucial operations.


Keystroke technology, a type of biometric identification, analyzes an individual’s unique typing patterns to authenticate their identity. By studying typing speed, rhythm, and pressure, this method enhances online security by confirming user identity based on their distinctive typing behavior.


A kilobyte represents a unit of digital information storage, equivalent to 1,024 bytes. Despite its relatively small capacity in today’s data landscape, a kilobyte remains foundational for storing small documents, images, or code snippets.



Lag, also known as latency, is the delay experienced between user input and system response. This delay, noticeable during activities like video streaming, online gaming, or video calls, often results from slow internet connections, overloaded servers, or outdated hardware. Reducing lag typically involves upgrading hardware or optimizing internet connectivity.

LED (Light Emitting Diode):

LEDs are semiconductor devices that emit light when an electric current passes through them. Renowned for their energy efficiency and durability, LEDs have revolutionized lighting solutions in homes, commercial spaces, and automotive applications. Additionally, they have paved the way for advancements in display technology, enabling thinner, brighter screens.

Levels Tab:

The Levels tab, featured in graphic design and audio editing software, allows users to fine-tune aspects such as color levels, brightness, and contrast in images or audio files. This feature provides precise control over the visual or auditory elements being edited.


In programming, a loop is a structure that iterates a set of instructions repeatedly until a specific condition is met. Loops automate tasks, optimizing code efficiency by executing repetitive actions, such as iterating through arrays or performing calculations.


Magnetic Induction:

Magnetic induction refers to the process of generating a magnetic field within a material by placing it near or within another changing magnetic field. This phenomenon is foundational to various applications, including power generation, electric motors, transformers, and wireless charging technologies.


Malware encompasses various malicious software designed to infiltrate systems and cause harm, ranging from stealing sensitive information to disrupting computer operations. Common types include viruses, worms, ransomware, and spyware, posing significant threats to cybersecurity.

Misconfigured Settings:

Misconfigured settings occur when system parameters or software configurations are improperly set, leading to system vulnerabilities or operational inefficiencies. Rectifying these settings is crucial to system stability, security, and optimal performance.


A multimeter is a versatile electrical measurement tool used to gauge electrical properties like voltage, current, and resistance in circuits. With its digital display, a multimeter provides accurate readings, aiding in fault diagnosis and circuit troubleshooting.



A network comprises interconnected devices and communication channels facilitating data exchange and communication. These networks can be as vast as the internet or as local as a home network, allowing devices to interact and share information.

NFC (Near-Field Communication):

NFC technology enables secure data transfer between two compatible devices when in close proximity. Commonly used for contactless transactions, data sharing, and mobile payments, NFC offers simplicity and security in wireless communication.

NIC (Network Interface Card):

A NIC is a hardware component enabling a computer to connect to a network, whether wired or wireless. NICs facilitate data transmission between devices on the same network, essential for accessing the internet or sharing files.


Node refers to a runtime environment that executes JavaScript code outside a web browser. It serves as a platform for managing content delivery and handling server-side operations, enabling efficient and scalable applications.


Open Circuit Voltage:

Open circuit voltage represents the maximum voltage output of a source when no load is connected. It signifies the source’s potential without any resistance, a critical aspect in understanding electrical systems.

Open Source:

Open source technology grants access to software code, allowing users to view, modify, and distribute it. This collaborative approach fosters innovation, transparency, and flexibility in software development, distinct from proprietary software.

Output Voltage:

Output voltage pertains to the voltage produced by an electronic device or circuit. It’s the result of converting input voltage or energy into electrical energy usable by other systems or devices.

Overloaded Battery:

An overloaded battery occurs when excessive current is drawn, causing it to discharge faster than it can recharge. This strain often results from using incompatible chargers or prolonged charging.


Patterns on Solar Panel:

The patterns etched on solar panels aid in optimizing sunlight absorption by scattering light across photovoltaic cells. These patterns enhance energy capture efficiency even when the panel orientation isn’t ideal for direct sunlight exposure.

Parental Controls:

Parental controls empower parents to manage and monitor their children’s online activities by restricting access to specific websites or setting time limits on device usage. These tools assist in ensuring a safer online experience for children.

Pre-game Settings:

Pre-game settings encompass configurations chosen by players before initiating a gaming session. These settings, including graphics quality, sound preferences, and difficulty levels, personalize the gaming experience to suit individual preferences.

PV Cell (Photovoltaic Cell):

PV cells are devices that convert sunlight into electrical energy. Widely used in solar panels, these cells harness solar radiation and play a pivotal role in sustainable energy production.



Qi-enabled devices support wireless charging capabilities adhering to the Qi standard. This technology enables cordless power transfer between compatible devices, simplifying charging processes.


Queries are requests made to databases to extract specific information. Programmed using languages like SQL or JSON, queries enable precise data retrieval based on conditions and operators specified.

QR Code (Quick Response Code):

QR codes are versatile, square-shaped barcodes storing data that can be scanned using smartphone cameras. They offer various applications, from website linking to product information dissemination.


Recovery Mode:

Recovery mode allows users to troubleshoot and fix issues with a device’s operating system. Accessible through specific key combinations, this mode offers options like cache wiping or factory reset.

Refresh Rate:

Refresh rate indicates how frequently a display updates its image per second. A higher refresh rate results in smoother visuals with reduced motion blur, essential for gaming and high-definition content.


Rollback functionality reverses changes made to software or systems, often employed to rectify errors caused by updates or installations.

Run-time Error:

A run-time error occurs during program execution, causing it to crash or malfunction. Unlike compile-time errors, these issues are challenging to detect and resolve without halting program execution.


Security Protocols:

Security protocols encompass rules and procedures safeguarding networks and systems against unauthorized access and cyber threats, ensuring data protection and system integrity.

Server Status:

Server status indicates the operational health of a server, encompassing response times and potential errors affecting its functionality.

Short Circuit:

A short circuit occurs when an electrical current follows an unintended path of least resistance, bypassing the normal circuit, often leading to device malfunction or damage.

Soft Glitches:

Soft glitches are transient software malfunctions causing applications to freeze or operate slowly, typically resolved by restarting the system.


Thermal Power Limit (TPL):

TPL denotes the maximum heat threshold a power plant can generate safely, ensuring equipment efficiency and operational safety.

Thermal Runaway:

Thermal runaway signifies uncontrolled temperature escalation in batteries, potentially leading to hazardous situations like fires or explosions.


Traffic on servers refers to the volume of data transmitted between the server and its users, impacting server performance and responsiveness.



Updates are essential modifications, enhancements, or fixes applied to software or apps to optimize performance, rectify issues, and introduce new features. They often include bug fixes, security patches, and functionality improvements.

User Profile:

A user profile is a personalized account or virtual space where individuals securely store their preferences, history, and personal information across multiple platforms or applications.


Uninstalling refers to the removal of software or applications that are no longer necessary or causing issues on a device. This process aids in system optimization and freeing up storage space.


Vehicle Identification Number (VIN):

A VIN is a unique 17-character code that identifies automobiles, containing crucial information about the vehicle, including its manufacturer, model year, and country of origin.

Voice Prompt:

Voice prompt technology provides users with voice-based commands to operate various devices, ranging from smartphones and cars to home automation systems, enhancing user interaction and accessibility.

Voltage Flow:

Voltage flow describes the movement of electrical charge from one point to another within an electrical circuit, inducing the flow of electric current. The direction of flow depends on the voltage source’s polarity.


A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure the electric potential difference between two points within an electrical circuit, aiding in voltage assessment and circuit diagnostics.


Window’s Update:

Windows Update, a service provided by Microsoft, ensures computers receive the latest software updates, security patches, and driver updates to maintain optimal performance and security.


A workstation is a specialized computer designed for high-end tasks like 3D modeling, video editing, and scientific computing, equipped with powerful hardware components for handling intensive computational workloads.

WPA (Wireless Protected Access):

WPA is a security protocol designed to protect wireless local area networks (WLANs) from unauthorized access, ensuring data privacy and security over WiFi networks.



XML is a markup language used for storing and structuring data, facilitating data exchange and interoperability across various platforms and applications.


Yellow light of death:

A technical issue prevalent in older versions of the Sony PlayStation 3, causing a yellow light to appear and prevent the console from functioning correctly, often requiring troubleshooting or repairs.


Zero-Day vulnerability:

A zero-day vulnerability refers to an undisclosed security flaw in software or hardware, exploited by hackers before developers become aware of it, posing significant risks due to the lack of preemptive measures.

Zip Files:

Zip files are compressed containers used to store multiple files, simplifying file sharing by bundling numerous files into a single, easily downloadable package.


Z-Wave is a wireless communication protocol utilized in smart homes, allowing interconnected smart devices to communicate and operate seamlessly, enabling various automated tasks for enhanced living experiences.


2FA (Two-Factor Authentication):

2FA is a security process mandating users to provide two forms of authentication (e.g., password and security token) to access systems or accounts, bolstering account security against unauthorized access.

404 Error:

A standard HTTP error code indicates that a requested web page or resource cannot be found, often due to a broken link or incorrect URL.

502 Bad Gateway:

An HTTP error code indicates an invalid response received by a server acting as a gateway or proxy from an upstream server, usually caused by connectivity or performance issues.

504 Gateway Timeout:

An HTTP error code signifying that a server acting as a gateway or proxy did not receive a response from an upstream server within a specified time frame, often due to connectivity or performance problems.


A family of wireless networking standards utilized in Wi-Fi technology, enabling wireless connectivity in various devices.

2.4 GHz:

This frequency band is the most commonly used for Wi-Fi connections. It offers a more extensive coverage area and better penetration through walls and solid objects. However, due to its widespread usage, it can be more susceptible to interference from other devices operating on the same frequency, like microwave ovens or cordless phones.

5 GHz:

The 5 GHz frequency band provides faster data rates and less interference compared to 2.4 GHz. While it offers higher speeds, the coverage range is generally shorter and more limited by obstacles like walls or obstructions. 5 GHz is often preferred for applications requiring higher bandwidth, like online gaming or streaming high-definition content.